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Direct drive Print
With direct drive power is transferred to driven wheels in electrical form without employing conventional powertrain. This results in several advantages including:

  • drive control over individual wheels
  • increased regenerative breaking efficiency
  • generic ABS breaking action
  • lower noise and vibration
  • lower maintenance
  • vehicles with increased maneuverability

Due to comparative advantages of direct drive vehicles with enhanced driving capabilities, reduced energy consumption and lower emissions can be built.

Electric motors that also function as generators by breaking are placed inside the wheels. At least two wheels have to be fitted with such motors.


Electric motor can be an integral part of a wheel although it's advantageous if a standard wheel rim can be mounted to a motor. The following figures show one of the possible ways of mounting a wheel to a motor.